Influence of exchange cations on the catalytic conversion of limonene over Serra de Dentro (SD) and SAz-1 clays: Correlations between acidity and catalytic activity/selectivity

A bentonite collected at Serra de Dentro (SD), Porto Santo Island, Portugal, and the source clay SAz-1 (Cheto, Arizona) were ion-exchanged with different cations (Al3+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Na+). Variable temperature diffuse reflectance (...)

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Calcium phosphate-mediated gene delivery using simulated body fluid (SBF)

Alireza Nouri, Rita Castro, José L. Santos, César Fernandes, João Rodrigues, Helena Tomás,

The present study aimed at developing a new approach in gene delivery of calcium phosphate nanoparticles through simulated body fluid (CaP-SBF). The physicochemical and biological characteristics of the CaP-SBF nanoparticles were compared with those made in pure water (CaP-water) via a similar procedure. The CaP-SBF and CaP-water solutions were then adjusted to two different pH values of 7.4 and 8.0, mixed with plasmid DNA (pDNA), and added in varying amounts to human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T) cells. The transfection efficiency and cell viability were studied in vitro by reporter gene (luciferase and Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) expression and the resazurin reduction assay, respectively, 24 and 48 h after the incubation with the nanoparticles. Our results indicated considerably high in vitro transfection efficiency for CaP-SBF/DNA complexes at physiological pH (7.4) with high amounts of CaP. Additionally, the SBF solution exhibited the ability to reduce the rapid growth of CaP particles over time, leading to higher transfection efficiency of CaP-SBF/DNA complexes than those made in water (CaP-water/DNA).

International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 434, Issues 1-2, 15 September 2012, Pages 199-208, ISSN 0378-5173, 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.05.066.